Brown Sugar | American Society of Baking
Commercial Baking Ingredients:

Brown Sugar

What is brown sugar?

Brown sugar is granulated cane sugar with added molasses. It is coarser and more moist than white sugar and imparts a unique flavor and dark color to food systems.

Two main forms of brown sugar are available:

  • Unrefined
  • Partially refined

Origin

Brown sugar originated in the Caribbean during the 1700s. Afterwards, it came into popular use in England and the American colonies due to its low price and unique flavor and color, compared to white sugar.1

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Commercial production

Starting with sugarcane, typical production steps include:

  1. Cleaning, chopping, milling, and pressing, and clarification of cane juice (12-14% sucrose)
  2. Boiling and evaporation to make thickened juice and syrup
  3. Crystallization and centrifugation to separate raw sugar crystal
  4. Addition of molasses to form the final product

Depending on the extent of boiling, three classes of this sugar can be produced: light (1st boil), dark (2nd boil), and blackstrap (3rd boil).2

Nutrition

Compared with white sugar, this sugar has slightly higher calcium, iron, and potassium content and slightly less calories.3

Function

Application

This sugar is finer, softer, and moister than granulated sugar. When brown sugar is used in place of granulated white sugar, a small amount of baking soda is needed to help neutralize the acidity that comes from the molasses. Acids can interfere in the process of carmelization of sugar, so neutralization of those acids will improve crust color.

FDA regulation

Cane sugar is regulated by FDA in the article 21CFR184.1854.5

References

  1. History of brown sugar. https://www.ehow.com/about_5375423_history-brown-sugar.html. Accessed Nov 21. 2019.
  2. Roger, A. Clemens., Julie, M. Jones., Mark, Kern., Soo-Yeun, Lee., Emilym J. Mayhew., Joanne, L. Slavin., and Svetlana, Zivanovic. Functionality of Sugars in Foods and Health. Comprehensive reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 15 (2016): 433-470.
  3. What is brown sugar? https://www.thespruceeats.com/what-is-brown-sugar-1328677. Accessed Nov 18. 2019.
  4. Brown Sugar vs. White Sugar: What’s the Difference? https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/brown-sugar-vs-white-sugar. Accessed Nov 18. 2019.
  5. CFR – Code of Federal Regulations 21CFR184.1854. Accessdata.fda.gov. April 01. 2019. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=184.1854. Accessed Nov 18. 2019.