Chocolate Chip Cookies | American Society of Baking
Recipes and Formulation:

Chocolate Chip Cookies

What is a chocolate chip cookie?

A chocolate chip cookie is a sweet baked treat that is recognized by its butter flavor and the inclusion of chocolate chips. Some variations can include nuts, oatmeal or raisins as well. Commercially available formats of chocolate chips cookies include:1,2

  • Fresh
  • Packaged
  • Frozen dough

Common variations of chocolate chip cookies include:

  • Chewy
  • Crispy
  • Chunky
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Chocolate chip cookies were created in the 1930s by the Massachusetts cook Ruth Wakerfield, and were originally called Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookie.

In 1939, Nestlé introduced to the market chocolate chips or morsels and started printing Wakerfield’s recipe on the package. In 1953, the chocolate chip cookie mix by Pillsbury was introduced to the US market. Today, chocolate chip cookies are the most popular cookies in the US.2


Commonly used ingredients for the production of chocolate chip cookies:3,2

Ingredient Type Usage level (Baker’s percentage) Function
Flour Low protein flour (All- purpose flour or cake flour) 100%
  • Provides structure
  • Absorbs liquids
  • Aids in ingredients biding
  • Provide substrate for Maillard browning reaction
  • No gluten network
Fat Butter, margarine, or shortening 55%
  • Imparts tenderness and mouthfeel
  • Dough lubricant
  • Creaming helps with air incorporation
  • Provides a rich buttery flavor
Sugar Granulated white sugar, brown sugar or a combination of both 51%
  • Provides sweetness
  • Aids in fat creaming
  • Contributes to cookie spread
  • Provides color, through Maillard browning reaction
  • Coarse sugar granules makes chewier cookies  while fine sugar results in a crispier texture
Chocolate Chips Dark or milk chocolate 30%
  • Provide a characteristic chocolaty flavor
  • Impart a contrasting texture
Water 19%
  • Provides moisture for flour gelatinization.
  • Aids in cookie spread.
Eggs Whole egg, egg powder 2%
  • Provide structure
  • Emulsifiers
  • Imparts rich flavors
  • Yolks impart unique color due to  carotenoids
  • Egg proteins contribute to Maillard browning reaction
Leavening Agents Baking powder, baking soda or ammonium bicarbonate. 0.96%
  • Leaven by gas production
  • Tenderize by stretching wall cells of baked goods
  • Provide a fine crumb
Salt Granulated 0.96%
  • Flavor and taste enhancer
Vanilla Extract or fresh 0.96%
  • Provides a characteristic sweet  flavor


Typical nutritional value of commercially available chocolate chip cookies per 100 g:4

Carbohydrate 72.00
Water 12.00
Fat 12.00
Protein 4.00

The high sugar and saturated fat levels in chocolate chip cookies make them highly caloric (350 – 370 kcal per 100 g).4

Commercial production

Chocolate chip cookies are commercially produced through the following process:3

  • Scaling and weighing ingredients separately.
  • First stage mixing: fat, sugars, water, salt, eggs, vanilla and leavening agent are mixed in a horizontal or vertical mixer.
  • Second stage mixing: flour is added and mixing continues till homogeneous.
  • Chocolate chip addition.
  • Forming: dough is fed to the hopper of a wire cut machine, and the cut dough pieces are placed on a greased baking tray.
  • Baking: cookie dough is baked at 180 – 220 oC (356 – 428 oF) for 7 min.
  • Cooling: cookies are cooled down for 5 min.
  • Packaging and storage.


Considerations for a variety of chocolate chip cookies:1

Condition Chewy Crunchy Crispy
Temperature 163 °C (325 -350°F) or higher 163 °C (325 -350°F) or higher < 163 °C (325°F)
Time 14 min 23 min 30 min
Sugar Brown sugar White sugar White sugar
Fat Vegetable shortening Vegetable shortening Butter
Cooling of the dough Yes Yes No
Flour All-purpose or bread flour All-purpose All-purpose

Considerations for various cookie types:3

  • Chewy: low moisture, sugar and fat prevent excessive spreading while short baking time provides the desired softness.
  • Crunchy: low moisture, sugar, fat, and long baking time generates a light and crunchy cookie.
  • Crispy: using butter aids in spreading and allows long time baking to form a crispy exterior.


Chocolate chip cookies have a commercial item description established by the USDA. All ingredients used in its production are considered GRAS when following Good Manufacturing Practices.5

No specific regulations exist in the EU for chocolate chip cookies. All core ingredients are considered safe when following Good Manufacturing Practices.


  1. Hamel, P.J. Cookie Chemistry: A simple path to chocolate chip cookies with the texture you crave. King Arthur Baking Company, 2016. Available at . Accessed 05 April 2021.
  2. Smith, A, and Kraig,B. eds. The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 941 – 943.
  3. Davidson, I. Biscuit Baking Technology: Processing and Engineering Manual. Netherlands, Elsevier Science, 2016, pp. 27 – 31.
  4. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. FoodData Central, 15 February 2018. Accessed 05 April 2021.
  5. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Commercial Item Description: Cookies. Accessed 05 April 2021.