Straight Dough | American Society of Baking
Recipes and Formulation:

Straight Dough

Also known as no time dough or rapid dough processing

What is straight dough?

Straight dough is a breadmaking system or method in which all ingredients (dry and liquid) are placed in the mixer and the dough is then mixed to full development.

Unlike the sponge and dough system, where a bulk fermentation period is used, this process does not include a fermentation step after mixing.1

High-speed bakeries use the no time or straight dough system to produce:

  • White pan bread
  • Whole wheat bread
  • Variety bread
  • Frozen dough
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The concept of no time or short time dough process became popular in the 1950s and 1960s when global demand for bread started to increase dramatically. This urged wholesale bakers to become more time efficient and produce more batches of bread per day.

How does it work?

The goal of the straight dough process is to obtain a high-quality and standardized bread batch in a very short time (3–4 hours from scaling through packaging compared to 6–8 hours in the sponge and dough system). This helps bakers comply with unexpected customer orders and offer a better service through reduction of lead and cycle times.

The following diagram shows the steps for the production of pan bread using the straight dough system:

A diagram showing the steps for the production of pan bread using the straight dough system.

In this system, the yeast and dough conditioners quickly modify the rheology of the dough to obtain optimum dough handling properties for makeup and gas retention for target volume during proofing and baking.


The goal of the straight dough system is to match the finished product quality of bread made with a normal and/or long fermentation time. This is accomplished through proper processing and the right formulation.

Formulation considerations for straight dough system

Processing considerations

Advantages and disadvantages of using the straight dough process

Advantages Disadvantages
  • Shorter processing time from scaling to packaging).
  • Space savings from eliminating bulk fermentation equipment (e.g. troughs).
  • Increased yield per pound of flour because there is no fermentation loss, only  increased water absorption.
    Reduction of labor costs associated with bulk fermentation operations.
  • Provides higher yeast survival during freezing.
  • Higher variable (ingredient) costs as more yeast, water and dough conditioners are added.
  • Poor tolerance of process to schedule changes or line disruptions (dough must be processed immediately after mixing).
  • Usually shorter shelf-life of the finished product (compared to sponge and dough).
  • Perceptible lack of fermentation flavors and aromas.


  1. Sievert, D., Hoseney, R.C., and Delcour, J.A. “Bread and Other Baked Products.” Ullmann’s Food and Feed, Volume 2, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2017, pp. 462–507.