Gluten-free Bread | American Society of Baking
Recipes and Formulation:

Gluten-free Bread

What is gluten-free bread?

Gluten-free bread is a bakery product made without wheat or any other gluten-containing cereal. It benefits consumers who suffer from celiac disease, gluten allergies or experience gluten intolerances.

Cereals that cannot be used in gluten-free products include:

  • Wheat (triticum aestivum or triticum durum) flour (white or wholemeal)
  • Ancient wheats (einkorn, spelt, emmer, spelt, Kamut)
  • Barley
  • Rye
  • Triticale
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How gluten-free bread is made

Formulating gluten-free bread requires a thorough understanding of the ingredients used to replace the unique functionality and viscoelastic properties of wheat’s glutenins and gliadins. The formulation requires the addition of ingredients that provide:

  1. Formation of a cohesive gel-like polymeric network or matrix capable of entrapping gas and supporting the expansion of gas bubbles without collapsing.1
  2. Formation of a wheatless batter or dough of optimum handling properties.
  3. Crumb formation through starch gelatinization and protein coagulation during baking.
  4. Water-holding and gas retention through viscosity building and gel formation.

Gluten-free flours used in gluten-free breadmaking

Cereal, roots and tubers Pseudocereals Legumes and pulses Other flours
Rice flour

Pregelatinized rice flour

Potato flour

Oat flour

Corn flour


Sorghum flour

Brown rice flour

Cassava (tapioca) flour

Quinoa flour

Amaranth flour


Garbanzo bean flour

Soybean flour 

Chickpea flour

Pea flour

Coconut flour

Flaxseed flour

Almond flour

Formulation of white sandwich yeast gluten-free bread

Ingredient Baker’s % (based on flour and starch weight)
Sorghum Flour 12.0
Corn Starch 12.0
Tapioca Flour 10.0
Potato Starch 66.0
Water (110°F / 43°C) 62.0
Egg whites 23.0
Unsalted Butter (room temp.) 15.0
Sugar 6.5
Cider vinegar (6% acetic acid) 2.5
Salt 1.5
Active dry yeast (ADY) 2.0
Xanthan gum 1.5
Carob bean gum 0.5


  • Ingredients scaling
  • Yeast activation: In a small bowl, dissolve yeast and sugar in warm water. Set aside to foam 5 minutes.
  • Mixing:
    • Foaming: Beat egg whites until thick and foamy.
    • Add dry and liquid ingredients to the egg whites foam.
    • Dough mixing: Mix on low speed to gently blend and incorporate dry and liquid ingredients, then increase speed to medium and mix 30 seconds more or until mixture is thoroughly combined and slightly thickened.
    • No gluten proteins so no development of a viscoelastic polymeric matrix.
  • Panning / depositing:
    • Grease 9 x 5-inch nonstick (gray, not black) loaf pan.
    • Dust the bottom and sides of the pan lightly with white rice flour.
    • Transfer the loose dough to a pan and smooth top with a wet spatula.
  • Proofing: Let the dough rise in a proof box (95°F / 70% RH) (35°C / 70% RH) until the dough is level with the top of the pan.
  • Topping (optional): Sesame seeds may be sprinkled on top.
  • Scoring: With a sharp knife, make three diagonal slashes (1⁄8-inch deep) in loaf so steam can escape during baking.
  • Baking: Bake gluten-free loaf bread for 60 to 70 minutes at 190°C (375°F).
    • Bake until a wooden pick inserted in the center comes out clean. The loaf is done when it sounds hollow when tapped on the bottom.
    • Alternatively, bake until temperature reaches 205°F (96°C) on an instant-read thermometer inserted into the center of the loaf. Final core temperature is only valid for baking at an altitude of 0 feet above sea level.
  • Cooling: Remove bread from the oven, transfer the bread to a wire rack, and cool for as long as necessary to reach 30°C (86°F).


Structuring ingredients in gluten-free breadmaking:

Hydrocolloids and fibers Protein sources Starches
HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose)

CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose)

Locust bean (carob) gum

Xanthan gum


Guar gum


Psyllium husk

Pee and potato fiber

Isolated β-glucans and hemicellulose

Dried egg whites

Dried whole eggs

Nonfat dry milk or milk solids

Dried fruits, tree nuts

Sodium or calcium caseinate

Milk protein isolates

Corn starch

Rice starch

Tapioca (cassava) starch

Potato starch

Pea starch

Arrowroot starch

Pre-gel starches

Instant starches

Enzymatic technology in gluten-free breadmaking

Emulsifying and foam stabilizing technology Crumb softening
De-oiled lecithin + phospholipase

Xylanase-treated pea/potato fiber

Maltogenic alpha-amylase2

Maltotetraose amylase


  1. Casper, J.L., and Atwell, W.A. Gluten-Free Baked Products, AACC International, Inc., 2014.
  2. Rosell, C.M. “Enzymatic Manipulation of Gluten-Free Breads.” Gluten-Free Food Science and Technology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2009, pp. 83–98.